I-E Features

Indo-European languages have two distinct features:

1. Cognates (words with similar structure and meaning, sharing a common linguistic ancestor)

Some examples:
English Dutch German Norwegian Lithuanian Celtic
mother moeder mutter mor mater mathair
three drie drei tre tri tri
me mij mich meg manen me
brother broeder bruder bror brothar brathair


Latin Italian Spanish French Sanskrit Greek
mater madre madre mere matar meter
tres tre tres trois tri treis
me me me moi me me
frater fra hermano frere bhrator phrater

2. Inflections (an alteration in or addition to a form of a word to indicate such things as case, gender, number, mood, and tense)

Some examples: sing, sang, sung

walk, walked

I, me; we, us

girl, girls

talk, talked

More I-E Cognates

English: Yes, mother, I have three.

Icelandic: Ja, modir, eh hefi thrja.

Swedish: Ja, moder, jag har tre.

Danish: Ja, mor, jeg hav tre.

Norwegian: Ja, mor, jeg har tre.

German: Ja, mutter, ich habe drei.

Dutch: Ja, moeder, ik heb drie.

Flemish: Ja, moeder, ik heb drie.

French: Oui, mere, j'en ai trois.

Spanish: Si, madre, yo tengo tres.

Portuguese: Sim, mae, tenho tres.

Italian: Si, madre, ce h'ko tre.

Romanian: Da, mama mea, eu am trei.

Czeck: Ano, matko, mam tri.

Polish: Tak, matko, mam trzy.

Russian: Da, mat u men'a tri.

Bulgarian: Da, maika, imom tri.

Compare these to the non-IE Finnish: Kyllä, äiti, minulla on kolme.